Skiing first arose in people's daily lives, then for practical and military purposes, then gradually evolved into performance and competitive events, and finally developed into the skiing sport of today. Since the social needs of each stage have influenced the development of ski culture, different historical periods reflect different characteristics of ski culture, and the development of the whole ski sport reflects the flow of ski culture.
From ski culture emergence, development, to modern ski culture. Skiing, or traveling on snow, has a history of at least eight thousand years. Although modern skiing originated in Scandinavia, 5000-year-old wall paintings indicate the use of skis in what is now the Xinjiang region of China; however, this is still debated. Initially purely utilitarian, skiing became a popular leisure activity and sport from the mid-1800s onwards, becoming popular in snow-covered areas of the world, providing a market for the development of ski resorts and their associated communities.
Prehistory: Petroglyphs and skis preserved in swamps suggest that hunters and trappers used skis at least 5,000 years ago, but skis are even older than that: as glaciers retreated, Stone Age hunters followed herds of reindeer and elk from the Altai region of Central Asia, migrating to the northwest and northeast to use skis covered in fur, much like modern climbing skins. Skis begin to be used in the Eurasian Arctic.
Early Modern: Throughout the Middle Ages, skis were used by Scandinavian farmers, hunters and warriors. By the 18th century, units of the Swedish army began training and competing on skis.
Formation of ski culture
From the beginning of human history, the level of skill acquired by humans has determined the extent of their activities. In ancient times, humans lived in near isolation from each other, with no communication between the various races, and the differences between the Eastern and Western habitats led to different skiing activities at different times and in different places.
Skiing in Northern Europe and the Formation of Skiing Culture Skiing occupies an important place in the history of world sports, not only as a fitness sport, but also as a competitive sport and a means of socialization, with a rich cultural connotation. However, skiing could not be called a sport in the beginning, it was just a human activity. On a small island in northern Norway, a petroglyph dating from around 2500 BC has been found. It shows a skier wearing a giant snowboard, holding a ski pole, wearing an ear cap and in a skiing position. This evidence supports the Nordic origin of skiing. The Swedish Museum in Gjøgarden now has a ski from the same period as the above rock art, found in 1921 in Naamtland, Sweden, which reinforces the Nordic origin of skiing. The English word "ski" is an exotic word from Norway,derived from an old Scandinavian language meaning "split wood or firewood". In the Scandinavian region, the snow is thick for more than eight months of the year, and production and living conditions are extremely poor. In order to survive the harsh natural conditions, people invented the idea of tying large pieces of animal bones or wooden boards to their boots and sliding through the snow for transportation and hunting, which was the first skiing activity of the ancient ancestors.
It is now recognized that skiing originated in Scandinavia, and the culture of skiing was formed.people invented the idea of tying large pieces of animal bones or wooden boards to their boots and sliding through the snow for transportation and hunting, which was the first skiing activity of the ancient ancestors. It is now recognized that skiing originated in Scandinavia, and the culture of skiing was formed.people invented the idea of tying large pieces of animal bones or wooden boards to their boots and sliding through the snow for transportation and hunting, which was the first skiing activity of the ancient ancestors. It is now recognized that skiing originated in Scandinavia, and the culture of skiing was formed.
Skiing in the Altay region of Xinjiang, China, and the prototype of Chinese ski culture There is also evidence of the earliest human skiing activities in the Altay region of Xinjiang. In the rock painting shed No. 1 of Dundebulak in Khande Gaat Mongolian Township, Altay, Xinjiang, there are rock paintings of skiing figures: from the development of steppe culture in the Altay Mountains and the rock shed paintings, it should belong to the rock shed paintings of the late Paleolithic period, about 10-20 thousand years ago.
The posture of the characters in the petroglyphs is basically standing, with extensions under their feet, upper body leaning forward, knees bending forward, and a clear sense of motion, which meets the posture requirements of skiers. Several people in the petroglyphs have snowboards on their feet and some are holding single poles,and the movements of the skiers are vivid and have a striking resemblance to the skiing postures of the farmers and herdsmen in the Altay region today, who wear ancient skiing equipment.
Since the area of Altay was the area of ancient human activities in the middle and late Paleolithic period tens of thousands of years ago, several authoritative archaeologists and historical and ethnographic experts have confirmed that the skiing petroglyphs in Dundebrak, Altay, Xinjiang, are at least 10,000 years old. An old wall map preserved in the Winter Sports Museum in Sapporo, Japan, clearly shows that skiing first appeared in the Altay region and marked the route from here to other places. Wang Bo, an archaeological researcher at the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum, believes that although the evidence found in Norway and Sweden are both 4,500 years old, they are more than 5,000 years older than the historical evidence of skiing in Altay. In order to commemorate this historical fact in the Altay region and to continue the earliest skiing culture in China, the "Xinjiang Altay Ancient Fur Skiing Competition" is held in the Altay region on January 16 every year under the initiative of Mr. Shan Zhaogan of the Chinese Ski Association. (There is still a controversy about the earliest skiing activity in China)Shan Zhaogan of the Chinese Ski Association. (There is still a controversy about the earliest skiing activity in China)Shan Zhaogan of the Chinese Ski Association. (There is still a controversy about the earliest skiing activity in China)
In the 13th century, the Norwegians had to master skiing in order to adapt to the cold and snowy environment, and gradually skiing became the national skill of Norway. At this stage, skiing was necessary for survival, it was integrated into daily life, transportation, hunting and other activities, and slowly formed the earliest skiing project "cross-country skiing", its value is mainly reflected in practical aspects.
1, European warfare changed the value of skiing culture in the 14th-16th centuries, due to the war in Europe, forcing Norway, Sweden and other Nordic countries to ski as a necessary military ability, and the value of skiing culture has changed from practical value to military value. In the early 16th century, when Sweden was not yet independent from the Swedish-Danish state union polity, Gustav Vasa advocated the independence of the Swedish state against Danish domination and oppression. He fled to Mura and instigated the Daranas there to overthrow the Danish king, and because he was unsuccessful, he planned to ski to Norway. However, the Dalecarlians soon heard the news of the Danish massacre of Swedes in Stockholm. The Dalaners then decided to revolt against Denmark and sent two men, Lars and Angel Blackett, to ski after Vasa,only to catch up with him near Salen and succeed in convincing him to return to Mura to revolt against Denmark. After two and a half years of war, Sweden gained independence and Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden. This is the historical origin of the present-day "Vasa Ski Race", a 90-kilometer ski race created in Sweden in 1922 in honor of King Gustav Vasa, who led the Swedish overthrow of Denmark, and named after King "Vasa". The route is planned according to the path that Vasa and others took to and from Mura and Salen, and the race has been held for more than 80 editions so far. Since 2003, Changchun City has been hosting this international skiing event, making China the fourth country to host the Vasaloppet after Sweden, the United States and Japan.
2.The economic boom in Europe accelerated the development of skiing culture The geographical discovery of the 15th-17th centuries was a turning point in human history, breaking the bonds of isolation between regions and accelerating the spread of various information and cultures. and culture. Europe grew rapidly during this period and laid the economic foundation for its future prosperity. Skiing was still an important military skill in northern Europe in the early 18th century, and played a significant role in the war between Norway and Sweden. Norwegian soldiers used their excellent skiing skills to rally quickly on the snow and deliver powerful blows to the enemy, which led to several victories for the Norwegian army in wars with neighboring countries. During this period, skiing took on a more military character,evolving into military patrols and military biathlons in peacetime. 1780 saw the beginnings of competitive skiing when the Norwegian Nurham made skis from cork strips with curved sides. Now, Europeans have retained the habit of participating in skiing regularly. In their view, skiing can make people refreshed, and their character will become cheerful and lively. Since many European countries have a snow season of more than half a year, skiing has become one of the favorite sports of Europeans, and people will go out together for skiing trips during the prime skiing season.and their character will become cheerful and lively. Since many European countries have a snow season of more than half a year, skiing has become one of the favorite sports of Europeans, and people will go out together for skiing trips during the prime skiing season.and their character will become cheerful and lively. Since many European countries have a snow season of more than half a year, skiing has become one of the favorite sports of Europeans, and people will go out together for skiing trips during the prime skiing season.
The industrial revolution in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries was of great significance to the world as a whole, as it greatly increased social productivity and provided a strong economic foundation for European world domination at the time. The Industrial Revolution created the early wealthy middle class, who pursued material and spiritual enjoyment and were willing to devote themselves to sports, and skiing developed rapidly during this period, resulting in many new skiing events and the formation of modern skiing culture.
1. The Industrial Revolution made Europe the core area of modern ski culture The Industrial Revolution brought changes in productivity, people no longer saw Europeans as barbarians who happened to have advantages in navigation and firearms, and the whole world was watching the development of Europe. This economic power also led to the development of ski culture and made Europe the core area for the development of modern ski culture.
The economic prosperity of Europe gave people time to participate and develop the sport of skiing, and in 1809, Olaf Rai, a Norwegian army adjutant, shot himself 9.5 meters into the air on skis to show his courage to his soldiers.
This form of skiing evolved into a separate sport called "ski jumping" and Rye became the first known ski jumper. As ski jumping became more widespread,the sport gradually moved away from its original practical and military significance and evolved into a sport of performance and competition.
Ski jumping, cross-country skiing and two other combined sports - Nordic biathlon (a combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping) and biathlon (a combination of cross-country skiing and shooting) were later collectively called Nordic skiing. By this time, the sport of skiing had formed a large pattern based on Nordic skiing, laying the foundation for a modern ski culture characterized by performance and competition.cross-country skiing and two other combined sports - Nordic biathlon (a combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping) and biathlon (a combination of cross-country skiing and shooting) were later collectively called Nordic skiing.
By this time, the sport of skiing had formed a large pattern based on Nordic skiing, laying the foundation for a modern ski culture characterized by performance and competition.cross-country skiing and two other combined sports - Nordic biathlon (a combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping) and biathlon (a combination of cross-country skiing and shooting) were later collectively called Nordic skiing. By this time, the sport of skiing had formed a large pattern based on Nordic skiing, laying the foundation for a modern ski culture characterized by performance and competition.
2. The Industrial Revolution was a major innovation that contributed to the development of modern skiing culture, and the Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18th century, developed steadily for 100 years.
Around 1870, the Industrial Revolution saw major innovations, as science and technology began to influence industrial production and a wide range of production techniques were improved and applied. In Scandinavia, many skilled artisans created new skis with bindings that allowed the heel to move freely, facilitating the skier's control of the snowboard, resulting in the "bent knee rotation" technique.
In 1868, Sondre Norheim used this particular technique when he landed in a ski jumping competition. --In 1868,Sondre Norheim used this particular skiing technique when he landed in a ski jump competition - the Telemark ski - and was noticed by the Norwegian public. The smooth turns and fast control made the technique look pleasing to the eye, and it quickly took Norway by storm, making skiing a national sport, and the Telemark technique was developed in Norway and continued into the next century.
3. Europe's economic dominance accelerated the spread of modern skiing culture By 1914, Europe's economic dominance, as well as its political and cultural supremacy, was unprecedented not only in breadth but also in depth. Europe had become the banker of the world, Europeans migrated to other regions, and many regions were Europeanized.
This change in the world landscape accelerated the spread of modern ski culture. When the Norwegians were skiing using the Telemark technique, skiing was still little known in the Alpine region. As the skiing culture spread, people were no longer satisfied with chasing the snow on the flatlands, but turned their interest to the alpine jungle with its uneven terrain, and a new skiing technique was gradually developed in the Alpine countries (Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, France,Austria, etc.). It is easy to control, better suited to skiing in Alpine terrain, and also allows for quick turns at high speeds when skiing down. Since the new technique originated in the Alpine countries, it was named "Alpine skiing", which is today's "Alpine skiing". As alpine skiing became more popular, Telemark skiing faded away and was later transformed into a touring skiing technique for slalom terrain. From the 20th century onwards, new motivations, values, forms of organization and physical activity emerged in modern athletics. 1901 saw the Nordic Games in the Scandinavian countries, which were later discontinued in 1926, and in 1924 the International Ski Federation was founded and the world's first Winter Olympic Games were held in Chamonix, France that same year. After 90 years of development, in 2014,the Sochi Winter Olympics has grown into a world competition with 7 major events and 98 minor events.
The growth of skiing is evident from the fact that 69 of these sports are snow sports and are still being expanded. Today, the world's leading skiing nations include Scandinavian countries such as Norway and Sweden, as well as Alpine countries such as France, Germany and Austria, and the United States and Russia. The Scandinavian countries are stronger in Nordic skiing because of their early origins in the Scandinavian region and centuries of skiing culture, while Alpine skiing has its origins in the Alpine countries, so these countries have an advantage in Alpine skiing.
Both Telemark skiing and alpine skiing were the basis of early skiing techniques,and they played a significant role in the innovation of skiing technology and the development of skiing culture. Norheim and his companions, the first to demonstrate Telemark skiing techniques, used and improved alpine skiing techniques to become the dominant technique in popular skiing. This change advanced the culture of skiing in the modern era and shifted its connotation from performance and competition to recreation and entertainment. After a period of decline, Telemark skiing was revived in the US by a few skiers who believed in going back to the basics.
There are many festivals in Europe to commemorate Telemark skiing, and usually in late March or early April, Livigno, Italy, hosts the world's largest celebration of Telemark skiing.used and improved alpine skiing techniques to become the dominant technique in popular skiing. This change advanced the culture of skiing in the modern era and shifted its connotation from performance and competition to recreation and entertainment. After a period of decline, Telemark skiing was revived in the US by a few skiers who believed in going back to the basics. There are many festivals in Europe to commemorate Telemark skiing, and usually in late March or early April, Livigno, Italy, hosts the world's largest celebration of Telemark skiing.used and improved alpine skiing techniques to become the dominant technique in popular skiing. This change advanced the culture of skiing in the modern era and shifted its connotation from performance and competition to recreation and entertainment. After a period of decline, Telemark skiing was revived in the US by a few skiers who believed in going back to the basics.
There are many festivals in Europe to commemorate Telemark skiing, and usually in late March or early April, Livigno, Italy, hosts the world's largest celebration of Telemark skiing.Telemark skiing was revived in the US by a few skiers who believed in going back to the basics.
There are many festivals in Europe to commemorate Telemark skiing, and usually in late March or early April, Livigno, Italy, hosts the world's largest celebration of Telemark skiing.Telemark skiing was revived in the US by a few skiers who believed in going back to the basics. There are many festivals in Europe to commemorate Telemark skiing, and usually in late March or early April, Livigno, Italy, hosts the world's largest celebration of Telemark skiing.
The formation of a diverse modern ski culture Between 1914 and 1945, when two world wars broke out, ski culture did not receive much attention.
The First World War was seen by Asians as an intra-European war, but it was significant in that it broke the European hegemony, which made Europe no longer the only core area of ski culture. The Second World War saw Germany invade the European continent and Japan invade East and Southeast Asia, but the two empires soon fell and by 1945 both had ceased to exist. The world landscape was bifurcated, with the United States and the Soviet Union becoming the focal points of the world, however, only 20 years later, this bifurcation was broken.
No one was the only center of the world, and this situation provided the ground for the emergence of a non-dominant snowboarding culture.
Before the 20th century, skiing culture was mainly developed in Europe, and later brought to America by European immigrants with cultural migration, so America did not have its own skiing culture at that time. 1965 American engineer Sherman Poppen ( ShermanPoppen ) tied two skis together and accidentally created a new type of ski with two feet on one board.
In 1965, Sherman Poppen, an American engineer, strapped two skis together and accidentally created a new type of ski with two feet on one board, which quickly became popular in the United States.
The culture of snowboarding was formed naturally. Initially, the snowboarding culture included forms of punk and hip-hop, and it was a non-mainstream culture that contradicted the traditional snowboarding culture.
There were too many differences between the two cultures, such as speech, behavior, dress,and the fact that snowboarders always looked strange and weird, and they left a bad impression on traditional snowboarders. It is hard for traditional skiers to tolerate this new cultural intervention.
2. Snowboarding culture is gradually merging with traditional skiing culture Snowboarding was created and quickly gained millions of fans . So many, so international, that it was no longer possible to present snowboarding in its old, stereotypical form.
The sport, with its emphasis on individuality and circle culture, represents a young, hip and cool lifestyle. Snowboarding is no worse than traditional snowboarding in terms of glide and control, but it also has an expressiveness that traditional snowboarding does not have. Snowboarders try to show off their personality with their own unique shapes and styles and exaggerated movements. As snowboarding continues to grow and develop, people are gradually changing their perceptions of it. During the snow season,snowboarders and traditional skiers often show respect for each other when they encounter each other, and over time, the snowboarding culture has become more accepted. In North America, snowboarding in the United States is prevalent in Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, New England, Colorado, Utah and California; in Canada, snowboarding is popular in BC, Alberta, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Ontario and New Brunswick. Unlike other sports, snowboarding professionals are not particularly interested in the prize money or the level of competition, but rather in how they feel and are willing to experiment with new and exciting techniques and different skiing styles.
The participants' dress, hairstyle, decoration, style, and music preferences all show the cultural characteristics of pursuing individuality. Every April,snowboarders at Whistler Ski Resort in BC hold a 10-day World Snowboard Festival with skiing, music and art as its themes. Whistler is not only a ski resort, but also a recreational resort, a paradise for sports enthusiasts. The name "Whistler" has been firmly remembered by skiers around the world, and snowboard culture has become an integral part of modern ski culture.
With the progress of social civilization, the public has a new demand for skiing, and the involvement of some non-mainstream ski culture has changed the traditional ski culture. Among the skiing sports, freestyle and extreme skiing are worth mentioning. Freestyle skiing was created in the 1830s as a trick performed by Norwegian skiers training for alpine and cross-country skiing, and later became known as "freestyle" in the United States as a non-competitive professional performance.
Later on, freestyle skiing developed into many other events, such as aerial skills, and became very popular, and now has become one of the winter Olympic snow competition events. Extreme skiing emerged in the 1850s, when some adventurous skiers tried to ski down high and steep mountains at high speeds,which later led to the extreme skiing that we are now looking forward to.
These skiing activities are very different from the traditional ones and have led to a number of non-mainstream skiing cultures. With the integration of non-mainstream skiing culture, skiing culture has been transformed from performance and competition to leisure and entertainment, and has gradually evolved into a diversified modern skiing culture.
4.Tourism skiing further spread the diversified characteristics of skiing culture Tourism skiing originated in Europe, and its emergence made skiing embark on the road of industrialization and made the diversified skiing culture increasingly mature. 19th century Europe, due to the industrial revolution to improve social productivity and make people richer, the invention of telephone and automobile made a qualitative leap in communication and transportation.
The widespread promotion of skiing in Europe prompted the emergence of ski sports tourism, which is not only manifested as a sport, but also a combination of skiing and culture, and gradually formed a tourist ski culture in which skiing, leisure, culture and entertainment are integrated.
Today, tourism skiing has become the pillar industry of ski resource-rich countries in Europe and America.People use skiing as a carrier, in the process of tourism skiing, feel the charm of close to nature and challenge themselves, and at the same time taste the special food, buy clothing and accessories, watch the competition performance, understand the history and folklore, and appreciate the different local customs, and further spread the diversified characteristics of ski culture.
Before 1840: Curved skis were developed by wood carvers in Telemark, Norway. The bowed, curved ski arched toward the center, allowing the skier's weight to be distributed more evenly over the length of the ski.
Previously, skis had to be very thick to glide and would not bend downward and sink into the snow under the weight of the skier, concentrating in the middle.
If skis were allowed to bend downward in this way, the skier would find himself skiing upward constantly, sliding out of the hole his own weight had created in the snow. camber makes it possible to have thinner, lighter skis that do not sink in the middle. A thin, curved ski floats more easily on soft snow, bends more easily to absorb the impact of bumps, and is easier to maneuver because it is lighter and easier to turn.
The thinner the ski,the lighter the ski runs faster and has better maneuverability compared to the clumsy side-sliding of the old "transport" skis with thicker boards. In parallel development, ski makers learned that sidecutting allowed for more agile turns.
1868: Sondre Norheim demonstrates the Telemark ski with a sidecut that narrows the ski underfoot while keeping the tip and tail wider. Like the camber, the sidecut produced skis that bent more easily when tilted, so that their edges followed the shape of the turn rather than sliding sideways in the turn. He also promoted a stiffer binding that kept the heel in the center of the ski during the turn. Norheim and his friends formed a small pioneering group of early skiers who improved skiing techniques when they developed the first dynamic turns for downhill runs between 1850 and 1900.
1882: Most high-quality European skis were made of strong, flexible ashes. 1882: The first hickory skis were produced in Norway. Hickory is so hard that it is difficult to use traditional hand tools. But with the help of modern carbon steel tools, Norwegian ski makers began to produce hickory skis. The tough wood makes it possible to make thinner, more flexible and stronger skis, and the hard base is less likely to produce scratches and scars that slow the ski down or cause it to slip sideways on the downhill slope.
Hickory was imported from Louisiana at exorbitant prices, and Norwegian immigrants in Wisconsin and Minnesota soon discovered that, with easier access to wood stocks, they could make superior quality hickory skis at a cheaper cost than their friends in the old country. By 1887, a few Norwegian skiers.
1893: The first two-layer laminated skis are made by HM Christiansen in Norway. The use of a tough hickory or ash base and a lighter spruce or basswood body made for a lighter, more flexible ski and reduced the need to cut thick boards of expensive hardwood. However, the elastomeric skins used at the time were not strictly waterproof, so the skis tended to delaminate after a few days of use. Meanwhile, in Glarus, Switzerland, carpenter Melchior Jacober opens what is apparently the first ski factory in Central Europe.
1905: The first series of Telemark skis are produced in Briancon, France, by an alpine unit of the French Army.
1926: Part-time mountaineer Rudolph Lettner of Salzburg, Austria, invents segmented steel borders that give the skis better grip on hard snow while still allowing the wood to bend naturally.
However, these sections have to be screwed into the ski and tend to loosen up. To make matters worse, the edge section may split in two. In that case, it is difficult or impossible to continue skiing. Skiers usually carry spare edge sections along with screwdrivers, screws and glue for on-site repairs.
1927: Two pairs of solid aluminum skis are made in France for Marie Marvingt, for use on sand and snow.
1928: Swiss skier Guido Reuge invents the Kandahar bindings, which use spring loaded cables to secure the heel in alpine skiing.
1932: Bjørn Ullevoldsaeter of Norway and George Aaland of Seattle independently invent the first successful triple-layer skis. Because they were made of truly waterproof casein glue, the skis were less likely to delaminate and lasted longer. When it was discovered that skis with a vertically laminated core proved to be lighter, livelier and stronger, sales began to take off. The first of these skis was sold under the Splitkein ("split-cane") label in Norway and as Anderson & Thompson skis in the United States.
1934: Joseph Vicky produces a limited number of solid aluminum skis in France.
1936: Aluminum ski poles are mass-produced in Saint-Ouen, France.
1937: RED Clark of Cambridge, England, develops the formaldehyde-based adhesive Aerolite to hold aircraft together - for example, it is used in the all-wood deHavilland Mosquito bomber. In 1941, he created Redux, which was used to bond aluminum and other impervious metals.
1944: Cellulix, the first cellulose plastic base, used in France for dynamic skis.
1945: Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Company uses Redux glue to make Metalite, an aluminum sandwich with a plywood core, for aircraft skins. Three Chance-Vought engineers, Wayne Pierce, David Richey and Arthur Hunt, used the process to create an aluminum laminate ski with a wood core. 1,000 Truflex skis were built, but when production picked up, the company abandoned the project and did not release the patent. This was the first mass-produced aluminum ski. It was easier to bend and less likely to break, scar or damage than wooden skis. It did not deform with use.
1946: Gomme skis were produced by Donald Gomme, an English furniture maker. The laminated wood core is sandwiched between two top plastic layers and a bottom metal layer, with a wood veneer sole to hold the wax in place. This is the first ski to use three different layering materials. Equipped with Gomme racers who fail to impress the world at the 1948 Olympic Games, Gomme resumes making furniture.
1947: Pierce, Richey and Hunt founded TEY Manufacturing to produce the aluminum Alu 60, a hollow aluminum ski consisting of a nested cap section channel at the top and a flat aluminum plate at the bottom, all glued together with Redux adhesive. It has drawbacks: the aluminum base sticks to the soft snow, does not hold wax well, and the ski is essentially a non-damped spring. The aluminum edge of the base soon wore out. It was renamed Aluflex in 1948, its second year of production, and TEY shipped 12,000 pairs. But skis without damping were almost impossible to ski on hard snow, and the patent was sold to Johnny Stiltwalker. In 1955, the Aluflex patent was copied in Switzerland by Sikorsky engineer Serge Gagarin (TEY's sales agent) and transferred to Attenhofer; the skis were made by Charles Dieupart in France. Eventually,with the addition of a wood core, the design evolved into the Dynastar MV2.
1947: Another aircraft engineer, Howard Head, creates an aluminum sandwich ski with a lightweight plasticized paper honeycomb core. The aluminum base had no steel edges. The ski was too light to track well and broke easily when bent. However, it worked well in powder and served as the prototype for the later successful Heads.
1948: The TEY trio invented TEY Tape, a self-adhesive cellulose plastic running surface that adheres to metal or wood skis. It is sold as part of Aluflex and is also available through ski stores and is suitable for any ski. Cons: TEY tape is relatively soft and easy to tear.
1948: Chris Hoerle of Torrington, Connecticut created the stainless steel Chris ski, the first ski with a continuous, low drag, full steel blade. The Chris skis usually had a TEY tape base, and Hoerle produced about 200 pairs, but never brought the skis to market.
1949: Howard Head's plywood-core, pressure-bonded aluminum Head Standard with continuous integral steel edges begins its journey to become the most commercially successful early metal ski. Its plywood core is pressure and heat bonded between a top and bottom aluminum plate with plastic sidewalls. The base plate has a continuous full-length steel edge. This is the first successful ski made from very different components. The secret of success was the bosun's glue, a flexible contact cement that allowed the different layers to shear each other without weakening. By 1960, head skis, as well as competitors and imitators, had replaced at least half of all wooden skis.
1952: The first fiberglass-reinforced plastic skis, the Bud Phillips skis, were not satisfactory. The same applied to the Holley ski created by Dan Holley of Detroit and Dale Boison's Dynaglass ski, both introduced in 1955. But these early attempts spread the idea that skis were livelier and less vibrating than ever before. This was achieved with aluminum skis. Designers discovered that fiberglass skis could be lighter and easier to turn than the best metal skis.
1954: Kofler introduces the first polyethylene base in Austria. kofix proves to be slippery enough in most snow conditions without the need for waxing. Minor scratches and chisels were easily repaired by melting more polyethylene into it. A similar material made by InterMontana in Switzerland is sold under the P-tex brand. Polyethylene was widely adopted by ski factories and replaced earlier plastic bases such as Cellulix. with the addition of polyethylene bases, Howard Head introduced the final version of the Head Standard ski.
1954: Pre-war world alpine skiing champion Emile Allais returns from five years of work in North and South America with several pairs of Head skis. He convinced Rossignol's new owner Laurent Boix-Vives to build aluminum Metallais and Allais 60 aluminum skis, which revolutionized downhill racing starting in 1959.
1959: Fred Langendorf and Art Molnar invent the first successful plastic fiberglass skis in Montreal and sell them under the Toni Sailer brand. From there, the concept spread quickly. By 1968, fiberglass had replaced wood and aluminum in slalom skis and most recreational skis. Aluminum laminates are still important for all high-speed skis (GS and speed). Aluminum/fiberglass composite skis are proving popular for recreational cruising and deep powder use.
1970: John Lovett of Boulder, Colorado, introduces the first fiberglass cross-country ski.
1970s: Plastic materials steadily improve. Prepreg fiberglass construction proves effective, but very expensive. s glass replaces E glass in wet layups. Manufacturers blend small amounts of Kevlar, carbon fiber, ceramic fiber and other high-strength materials into fiberglass to help improve strength, flexibility, damping, torsion - or just to increase marketing awareness. Sintered polyethylene began to replace extruded polyethylene as a tough, wax-retentive, high-speed base material.
1989: Volant skis, the first commercially manufactured steel skis, are introduced by Bucky Kashiwa. 2001 The factory closes due to high labor costs and production moves to Austria. Some of the Volant production equipment is purchased by David Goode, who uses it to produce skis made primarily of carbon fiber.
1990: Elan and Kneissl produce a prototype of a deep sidecut "shape" ski, moving away from the classic Telemark geometry to a ski that is easy to carve.